Parts of Speech. Knowing the different parts of speech and being able to recognize them in the sentences you read as well as the ones you write will help you speak more eloquently, write more clearly, and feel more confident when communicating with others.
Capitalization. Knowing which words to capitalize is often common sense (e.g. First words of sentences, names of people, cities, etc.), but even the best of us have trouble keeping track of all the situations where we need capital letters. This brief but handy guide lists most of the situations you will encounter where you will need to capitalize words.
Prepositions indicate time, place, or context, letting the reader know when and where things are happening in a sentence.
Articles signal and introduce nouns. There are two types of articles: definite and indefinite.
Colons serve a few purposes, both grammatical and non-grammatical. Like semicolons, they help to link related clauses without using conjunctions. However, unlike semicolons, the use of a colon does not require both clauses to be independent.
Semicolons are used between independent clauses that are closely related (i.e. the second clause further discusses the first) and are not joined by the conjunctions and, but, or, so, nor, yet.
Brackets are sometimes used interchangeably with the more common parentheses. However, the two serve different purposes in writing.