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APA and MLA

APA Format

APA Format, 7th Edition

Open the APA template below, save it to your own document name and location, and start typing your paper. Do not forget to delete any explanatory text or unnecessary information to your project, such as unneeded tables or footnotes.

This template was created by consulting the APA Publication Manual, 7th edition.  Some components might not be required for every assignment-- always consult your instructor's rubric and prompt for specific requirements.

APA In-Text Citations

Citations with one or two authors

(Black, 2011)  

(Black & White, 2011)

Citations with three or more authors

  (Black et al., 2011)

Other Reminders: 

  • In text citations are necessary whenever a writer is quoting or paraphrasing information from a source.

  • When quoting, three elements are necessary: the author's last name, year of publication, and the location of the quote (use p. for a page number, and para. for a paragraph number). 

  • Et al. is a phrase that means "among others," which is why it is used when a sources has multiple authors.

  • If there is no date available, use the abbreviation (n.d.) for no date.

APA Reference Page

The Reference page entry allows the reader to access the same sources as the writer. Here are some common sources and ways to format those sources.

Journal Article with a DOI

Author’s last name(s), first initial. (date). Title of article with only the first word, the first word after a colon, and any proper nouns capitalized. The Name of the Journal in Italics, Volume number in italics(Issue number in parentheses), first page-last page. DOI as URL

Journal Article without a DOI

Author’s last name(s), first initial. (date). Title of article with only the first word, the first word after a colon, and any proper nouns capitalized. The Name of the Journal in Italics, Volume number in italics(Issue number in parentheses), first page-last page. URL to article if available

Printed Book 

Author's/Editor's last name, first initials. (Year of publication). Title of book. Publisher.

Webpage on a Website

Author(s) of article. (Date Published, Copyright Date or Last Revision). Title of document. Name of Website. URL

Film or Recording

Author, A. A. (Director). (Year of release). Title of work [Description]. Publisher. URL

MLA Format

MLA Format, 8th Edition

 

The Modern Language Association (MLA) is typically used for subjects in the humanities. Here are resources on formatting your essay, formulating your in-text citations, and composing your reference entries on the last page of your essay.

MLA In-Text Citations

MLA in-text citations are used whenever a writer uses information from an outside sources, no matter if it is quoting, paraphrasing, or summarizing. This citation acknowledges that the information comes from that particular source. 

In-text citations have two basic components: the author's last name and the location of the material (usually in the form of a page number). 

You can decide if you would like to name the writer in the signal phrase or in parentheses.

1-2 Authors

If you have a source with one or two authors mention all of their names in each citation.

Pink argues "....." (24)

 (Pink 24)

Pink and Green agree ....... (24)

(Pink and Green 24).

3 or More Authors

If you have three or more authors, mention the author who is listed first and use the phrase et al., which is Latin for "among others."

Red et al. presents..... (page number)

(Red et al. 34)

No Author

If there is no author listed, use the source's title or shortened version of the title. If it is an article or other work within a larger publication, use quotes around the title. If it is a larger, stand alone work, use italics. 

("All the Colors" 23)

(Works of Art 90)